Annular Evolution of the Earth

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Annular Evolution of the Earth


Bibliographic Citation

Estella Bachman Brokaw, “Annular Evolution of the Earth,” The Humanitarian Review 4 no. 4 (April 1906): 130-137; 4 no. 5 (May 1906): 174-179.


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ON the front cover of a popular magazine appeared not long since, the following statement: “The keynote of the world’s progress... will be ‘Truth.’ Men and women have come to recognize that to make progress means a free mind steadfast for facts instead of tradition. In proportion as they have learned to work with untrammeled brain, there has been progress in every department of life—in science, in government, in education, in literature. Those who would achieve must stand with open minds ready to receive the truth.”

If that statement is correct, and assuredly I hope it is, then it is time to call attention to the facts in regard to the original “Truth,” a knowledge of which will go far to clear away the mists of tradition, and thus open the road to rapid progress in many lines—aye, in every line of thought, and study, and work.

To understand the origin of truth we must go back, in mind, to a long lost and wholly forgotten environment— to the physical environment in which our primitive ancestors lived on this earth. To understand that environment we must first consider a number of facts involved in a discover made some thirty years ago by Isaac Newton Vail. This discovery was that the earth once had




such as, in different stages, is now seen about the planets Saturn and Jupiter. This discovery first came to Prof. Vail, then a young college teacher of geology, as a good working hypothesis; and more than thirty years of careful investigation and research in the field and in the study, has enabled him to accumulate such a mass of evidence, on many lines and from world-wide sources, as must convince every “untrammeled brain” of the truth of his discovery, whenever such brains are allowed by their owners to weigh and sift the evidence and give it the thorough scientific examination that its importance demands.




Professor Vail’s discovery takes us back to a starting point on which all physicists agree: the time when this world was a molten, fiery mass, whirling in space. The inveterate heat of such a tremendous furnace must have sent aloft every particle of matter that could be vaporized or sublimed, and that matter must have been kept aloft while the heat continued to be the stronger force. In order to remain aloft, the vapors from our burning world had to revolve about it, and, in obedience to nature’s invariable trend, must have been thrown into rings or bands about the equator of the revolving mass. During the unknown time in which the center was still too hot for even the inner rings to fall back and remain upon the nucleus of the world-to-be, the whole mass of vaporized and sublimed mineral and metallic matter was obedient to the force of gravity, and so became assorted with the heavier or least easily vaporized minerals and metals in the inner rings, the lighter or more easily vaporized ascending to and remaining in the outer rings. Hence we here see why gold, one of the heaviest of metals and yet one of the most easily vaporized, is now found in the super-crust, and even on the actual surface of the earth. Once the mind is “ready to receive the truth,” it cannot fail to feel surprise that any geologist should ever have supposed that all the vapors sent up from a molten globe should have returned during one age—that is, before the close of the Archaean; for in that case there would have been but a mass of heterogeneous materials, which no known physical forces could have sorted into the distinct and orderly geological column our dictionaries and geological text-books illustrate.

When the molten mass was sufficiently cool for returning materials to remain upon it, the work of




began by the innermost rings falling back and forming the world-wide foundation rocks of the geological strata. Rings revolving about the earth revolved independently, as can be seen today by studying Jupiter and Saturn, and could return only by falling back into the earth’s atmosphere in a broad band about the equator and then declining toward the poles, where the centrifugal force is absent. In fact the centripetal force becomes all-powerful about the regions of the arctic circles. So a ring descending about the equator and kept from falling there by the centrifugal force exerted, as well as by its own rapid revolution, would gradually fall in a revolving mass toward the polar circles, thus forming a canopy or covering of aqueous, mineral and metalic matter as a sort of watery shell about the earth. Such a canopy would continue to revolve for an unknown time and finally fall as measureless




about the arctic and antarctic circles. Just as some years ago astronomers saw masses fall in at the poles of the planet Jupiter. What one ring had to do in obedience to the immutable trend of nature, all had to do.

A falling canopy meant glacial conditions (and such snow-falls were all-competent to produce all the glacial epochs this world has ever known); then another ring descended and spread over the desolate world as a sort of hot-house roof, causing the sudden melting away of glaciers, and as a consequence “floods vast beyond conconception raged in ten thousand valleys,” to be succeeded by the reign of the quiet canopy as it revolved slowly through unmeasured time to its doom. This hot-house roof produced a world of abounding life, when life came, and semi-tropic conditions almost to the very poles. Suddenly, “as with the cold of a winter night,” another canopy mass came down, and we have




with uneaten food in its mouth, to attest the awful speed with which a world teeming with plant and animal life was buried in measureless reaches of snow.

Since the force of gravity worked then as now, it followed that the outermost rings must have been least mineral and metallic and proportionately more aqueous than the rest. The geological evidence, as well as all ancient writings of every sort, prove conclusively that persons came upon the earth before the close of canopy times, and that human eyes saw at least two canopies reign and fall. These last remnants of the earth’s annular system made




for primitive persons; and these primitive persons were neither savages nor half apes. All the evidence, goes to show that they were children, with a child’s capacity and a child’s ignorance. The hot-house roof, the vapor canopy, under which they lived and grew to maturity, controlled the power of the sun so that life was necessarily long and growth to maturity exceedingly slow, so that these primitive children had a long period of years in which to develop the powers that children of today must attain in weeks or months. During the “Golden Age,” to which almost all peoples look back, life was easy and danger was absent; and through the long years of slow growth there was time for the reception and development of impressions which gained so firm a hold on the intelligence of the race that we still show them forth in our thoughts and acts today.

To fully understand the environment of these primitive persons we must try to imagine ourselves on the under side of a canopy of dark and light bands, and ever changing forms, such as Jupiter’s, the varying appearance of which are so puzzling to astronomers today. Looking up from the inner side we should see a watery heaven, the shamayim or “there waters,” or “shining waters,” of Genesis. This heaven of aqueous vapors revolved about the earth at first with a movement faster than that of the earth itself. As the sun poured its light and heat into the vapor mass the light was diffused throughout; so there could be no true night under canopy conditions. Probably that explains why Dr. Schliemann could find no lamps in the earliest cities at Mycenas or Troy. The night, as we call it, of that older time, must have been simply a more shaded day. If we can imagine the most glorious sunsets and sunrises we have ever seen multiplied a millionfold, we may get some conception of the glories of form and color which the eyes of primitive persons saw in their



Canopies being made up of bands, belts, lines, and being constantly in rapid motion, presented innumerable and ever-varying, ever-repeated scenes to the adoring eyes of persons all over the globe, who looked upon this worldcontrolling water-heaven as




As nothing but the ordinary clouds of the atmosphere could float in the heavens beyond the regions of the arctic and antartic circles, it followed, in all times of canopy quietude—when a canopy in its most perfect stage covered the earth for unknown time—that there must have been openings at the north and south poles. In the north polar opening, by all observers in the northern hemisphere, was seen a bit of the true heaven—the blue sky. This was seen to be ever the same, an enduring rock amid the wild whirl of ephemeral forms. This true sky was original truth:* permanent, changeless, eternal, everlasting, without variableness or shadow of turning. The “shadow of turning” was seen each night (as we would say) during canopy times, when the sun was in the underworld and the shadow of the earth was thrown back on the bright canopy in the shape of a truncated cone or pyramid—and we have it memorialized to this day in pyramid and mound in many parts of the earth.




had no idea of abstract terms. All words were taught them by visible objects, and in these teachings a most important part was played by the polar opening in the north, for, while the whole vapor heaven served as the first kindergarten book of pictured object lessons, the congregated glories in the northern sky, in and about the polar opening—the place of assembled arcs or arches, and therefore “arctic”—was the supreme teacher. There was spoken the word of Deity, direct from the mouth of Deity.(*) The Word was visible manifestations of power,(*) seen by all persons, interpreted into speech and imitated in action by the wise of that day. Every variation in the innumerable scenes said something to persons on earth; and the scenes, constantly repeated in the inexorable trend of nature’s movement, became so firmly fixed in the mind of the human race that we show the effects of its teaching even now in this 20th century of the Christian era.

In order that a canopy should fall at the poles, it must in time part at the equator and begin its final decline north and south. This parting gave other views of the truth (*)—the pure sky, the true heaven—and, in the many rifts and breeches to which a canopy was subject during the ages of its slow decline, still other glimpses of the truth were obtained, and gradually it was seen that there was a power higher than the ephemeral heavens, now recognized as passing away. This power had its strongest and most marvelous manifestations in the north polar heavens as seen by persons north of the equator. There, as the vapors gathered and heaped themselves about the Well of Wisdom (for original wisdom was the outer universe), was seen mountain piled on mountain; there was Mount Helicon, the helix of the world, the pivot on which the celestial world visibly turned; there was the Hebrew Mount of Congregation “in the sides of the North;” there was Mount Olympus and the golden Mount Meru. Though this polar hole was a circular opening in the revolving vapors, to an observer in the latitude of Southern Europe the shape was nearly that of a horseshoe or inverted cone—an “inverted mountain.” As the brilliant light of the sun poured in and about the opening,




were beyond description. There was the seat of the Judge; there the regent of Deity had his palaces and temples; there was the holy place (an actual hole), and beyond was the “holy of holies;” there was located the Shiloh of Rest, the Nirvana to which all canopy forms that kept up the orderly march had to go—the ending place. Small wonder that the ancients should have left us




of their work (such as are now being found in many lands by archaeologists) when we once realize, even in small measure, what a wonderfully accurate and patient teacher they had. Through the long centuries, and with long individual lives in which to learn, possessed of the faculty of imitation—still the strongest faculty through childhood—what marvel that all persons on earth should have learned to copy the celestial patterns? Working as children work when they do a thing for pure love of self-expression, for the pleasure of action and accomplishment, and with patterns in endless variety and constantly repeated, they had ample opportunity and every incentive to learn thoroughly and well. As in the minds of primitive persons everything that moved had life, so the ever-moving, ever-doing canopy was a living thing—a world of living beings; and the story of their lives and actions, as told by their pupils on earth, has come down to us on




seal rings, golden ornaments, and in an endless variety of other ways—as well as in all ancient literature that has come down by word of mouth and is still being passed along as folk-lore in remote nooks and corners.

Pasadena, Cal., March 10, 1906.


(*) These statements form queer metaphysical settings in a supposed-to-be logical presentation of a scientific “discovery.” The “blue sky” may be called a symbol of truth but is no more truth per se than is a black cloud.—Ed.

(To be concluded in the Review for May)




[Continued from April number.]
“the Battle Of The Gods.”


THE age-long struggle between solar forces and vapor foes, which is recorded in all ancient religious books and in all old records of any sort whatsoever, was the contest between the sun and true heaven, on the one side, and the ephemeral vapor heaven, the last remnants of the earth’s annular system, on the other. It was a solar-vapor contest for control of the world: what wonder that it was looked upon as “the battle of the gods” by the helpless inhabitants of the earth, who could only watch the struggle and await their fate!

Persons on earth assuredly watched the contest,, for they have left the record that Ouranos and Kronos had to be banished before Zeus could finally reign triumphant over the world. This same story of a succession of gods, or heavens, is told in almost every tongue all over the globe, and very plainly in the Christian Bible. The One, the True, came into full power when the last vapors fell and the sun, as we see it today in the limitless blue of the sky, shone out in full splendor—no longer a subaltern, no longer a “hidden sun”—and a wholly new era set in for our planet and the persons upon it. It was this canopy veil which was “rent throughout from top to bottom” at the beginning of the Christian era; and “a new heaven and a new earth” took the place of the old ephemeral heavens and unfinished earth when the last great remnants of the earth’s annular system came to the surface of the planet.

I have given but the faintest outline of this exhaustless subject, and yet it is enough to show that there is no branch of literature, no line of thought, no subject for scientific study on which the discovery of the annular evolution of the earth does not throw some light.

Through this discovery the story of the rocks is for the first time told in plain language and without a single “great gap to be filled.” It accounts simply, and yet in an all-competent manner, for the regularity of strata, the formation of coal, age succeeding age, and for the glaciers extending far up and down from the antarctic and arctic circles; and it shows why the Tertiary age of abounding life ended suddenly in a graveyard of the broken bones of gigantic creatures.




spread out and fell, and age followed age, the sudden changes were at first necessarily world-wide. But as the world grew toward maturity the various forms of life had a better chance for survival. In deep-sea waters and other protected places, some would survive to live and grow as best they could in the new and, for them, less suitable environment. This discovery throws light on biology, for it gives a reasonable explanation of the origin of the different forms of life in different ages, and it has no “missing links.” The rings were the seed-beds of organisms, and as each ring fell it brought with it the germs which grew and thrived in the environment which succeeded. Each form was strongest in the physical environment best adapted to it; and this was as true of persons, when their turn came, as of plants and lower animals. The forms necessarily became higher and higher in the scale of life, as we define it, as the world grew by the regular addition of the wreck of rings and became more and more nearly a finished product, a mature growth, a higher environment. Annular evolution throws light on archaeology, for in the vapor heavens, and above all in the wonderful north, was set the archetype from which all subsequent designs were formed—there was the great primal instructor of all the world’s children. This first great teacher gave the pattern for all primitive work, whether the building of cities and temples, the weaving of cloth, the making of baskets and bowls, the fashioning of arrow point and spear head, or the decoration of shield and whorl with rings and crosses, spirals and swastikas, or stones in slings—as seen on some of the treasures unearthed by Dr. Schlieman and others. Their gods,




taught primitive persons these things, as well as speech and writing, music and mathematics. Speaking of mathematics, what could be more accurate than the mathematical problems set by nature through the long ages of canopy environment?

As all persons in the same latitude, the world around, saw precisely the same scenes, we can readily understand why the same stories and fashions are found in such widely separated parts of the earth; so alike, and yet each bearing the stamp of its own local environment. It was not necessary that any race should borrow from another, or that there should be migrations from any central location, for the accomplishment of the striking likeness in results as found today. Many scholars have sought to account for the similarity in religious and domestic customs and traditions by supposing that all such peoples originally came from one country, or even from one race or family; that they learned these customs and stories while living under one roof, and that they took their stories with them when they scattered over the globe. All persons on this earth at any one time during canopy ages did live under one roof and learn the same habits and stories; but that roof was a world-roof, a sun-concealing




Incidentally, this explains the statement made by the Peruvians to the Spaniards, at the time of the Spanish conquest, that the ruined cities about Lake Titacaca were built by a race that lived there before the sun was seen in the heavens. This discovery throws




for it points the way to a clear and simple explanation of the striking differences between the races; differences which are now acknowledged to have been fixed under conditions that our modern scientists have been unable to explain, other than by saying that the environment of that far-off time must have been someway different from that of today. It was. Annular evolution illumines philology, for it clearly suggests the origin of language and shows why there is such a likeness in most words among widely separated peoples. All persons in the childhood of the human race saw the phenomena of the vapor heavens in rapid movement above them, and the wise and thoughtful gave names to the infinite variety of scenes and conditions observed in that watery expanse. These names, as a canopy departed, were transferred to the sun, moon and constellations, as well as localized in names of places and things all over the globe.




is no longer a myth, for it then becomes a bit of history; and in this discovery we have in our hands the clue that will lead us through the whole labyrinth of mythology and place before our mental vision a clear picture of the gods of old in their various activities, and show why they exerted such a lasting influence over the language and literature of all subsequent ages. Annular evolution explains the source of all religions, and shows the all-sufficient reason for the astonishing similarity found in the basic ideas on which all religions, ancient and modern, are built up. The Hebrew scriptures, for instance, have been sadly misunderstood and misinterpreted because it was supposed that they told the story of a divine power leading the Jews or human Israel, whereas they are real ly a record of the celestial host of El in the canopy world, and any mention of persons on earth is but incidental and secondary. Variant forms of the same story are found in all other ancient records and religious books; for all deal with the celestial world seen in and beyond the ephemeral heavens of that long-lost and forgotten environment.

This discovery even clears up the mystery of the




for when the canopy, which had long been in every sense Agathodemon (a good demon and protector), began to show disorder and distress, as it parted and fell, it was seen to be a deceiver—a “liar and father of lies.” The bright Lucifer, son of Sachor, literally fell from heaven, and in his fall brought destruction to many.




I have barely touched upon a few points of the wonderful revelation that Prof. Vail’s discovery opens for those in search of the truth; for those possessing “a free mind steadfast for fact instead of tradition,” for all who have “open minds ready to receive the truth,” for those who would solve the mysteries of the past and so get a flood of light thrown on the problems of the present. All agree that the past has made us what we are. The more clearly we can comprehend that past, the better we can understand the present, and the sooner we can see plainly the way to make that present what it ought to be, instead of the confusion and utter discord that it is.

Truth, as we use the word today, must retain the qualities of its original: it must be permanent, unchangeable, “the same yesterday, today and forever,” or the word becomes meaningless. The truth of nature is one harmonious whole, and can be found by all who seek it with clear eyes and an “open mind.”

Annular evolution is a key that unlocks the door to much of this truth; it is an explanation that explains numberless mysteries; it is a light that illumines the way far and wide along the vista of the ages that have passed. It rests with the scientific world today to use this help and so make a plain and straight-forward, and withal most fascinating, history of what is now, to most scientists and scholars, but a misty, hazy, confused mass of half-understood symbols, fairy tales, myths, and seemingly impossible traditions.

If the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science was correct in declaring that “the fundamental characteristic of the scientific method is honesty The sole object is to learn the truth, andto be guided by the truth. Absolute accuracy, absolute fidelity, absolute honesty, are the prime conditions of scientific progress,” then those possessing the scientific spirit will make speedy and practical investigation along this line, and so keep our children from having the opportunity to smile over the folly of a generation that professed to take truth as its guide, and yet remained wilfully blind to such a simple and manifest truth as annular evolution.

Pasadena, Cal., March 10, 1906.



Attention is hereby called to the letter from Prof. Vail, on page 193, giving information regarding “canopy evolution “supplementary to the article by Estella Bachman in this and the preceding numbers of the Review. The theory is an ingenious one, and is full of food for thought whether it be true in whole, in part, or only in slight approximation to the reality. “Freethinkers,” at least, will not reject it, or ridicule it, without first giving it careful investigation. Prof. Vail is a Liberal and a free thinker of much natural ability and scientific education.


Estella Bachman Brokaw, “Annular Evolution of the Earth,” The Humanitarian Review 4 no. 4 (April 1906): 130-137; 4 no. 5 (May 1906): 174-179.



Brokaw, Estella Bachman, “Annular Evolution of the Earth,” The Libertarian Labyrinth, accessed October 17, 2019,